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Wharton’s Jelly is a clear, mucous tissue that insulates and protects the umbilical arteries and vein.
The Wharton’s Jelly of the human cord is unique among connective tissues as it contains only Mesenchymal Cells that make up the functional myofibroblasts of the tissue and their predecessors.
In brief, Wharton’s Jelly consists of mucopolysaccharides (sugars) in cord tissue comprises primitive Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), the multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells). Although these are found in adult tissues, especially in bone marrow, the MSCs in Wharton’s Jelly are the most primitive source with very high regenerative potential.
Human MSCs (hMSCs) are the non-haematopoietic, multipotent stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineages such as osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes as well ectodermal (neurocytes/neurons) and endodermal lineages (hepatocytes/liver cells).
Mesenchymal Stem Cells are one of the most promising aspects of research and is increasingly being employed in regenerative medicine to treat Spinal cord injury, Cartilage injury, Brain injury, Wound healing, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple sclerosis, Myocardial infraction, Alzheimer, Diabetes, etc.
Besides MSCs are considered as an immune privileged cell in consequence is being utilized in allogeneic organ transplantation, graft versus host diseases (GVHD) and efficient homing for the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation engraftment.